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82 matches found for 2 in Extension Publications

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  1. Agronomy Facts 12: Nitrogen fertilization of corn [pdf]Get Acrobat Reader
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "Nitrogen (N), an element that literally surrounds us, changes in form and chemistry almost continuously and moves from one location to another without our notice."

  2. Agronomy Facts 20: Birdsfoot Trefoil [pdf]Get Acrobat Reader
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "Producing high-quality forage for cattle and sheep has traditionally been difficult on marginal lands in Pennsylvania and New York. Soils with few limitations are generally sown to alfalfa. Soils with a low pH, poor drainage, poor native fertility, or fragipans prone to heaving are not suitable for alfalfa production. Birdsfoot trefoil ( L.) is a forage legume that is more tolerant of these adverse production conditions."

  3. Agronomy Facts 21: Red Clover
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "Red clover ( L.) is grown throughout the northeastern United States for forage and is used in rotations for soil improvement. It is adapted to areas with moderate summer temperatures and adequate moisture throughout the growing season. Unlike alfalfa, red clover will grow moderately well in slightly acid soils. However, maximum yields are obtained when soil pH is 6.0 or higher."

  4. Agronomy Facts 22: White Clover
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "White clover ( L.) is a short-lived perennial that can reseed itself under favorable conditions. It grows rapidly and spreads via stolons. White clover has a shallow root system, which makes it intolerant of droughty soils. It grows best during cool, moist weather on well-drained, fertile soils with a pH between 6 and 7. Pure stands of white clover are not usually planted because of their low growth habit and associated low yield. However, they make high-quality pastures in mixture with a grass and fix nitrogen for use by the grass."

  5. Agronomy Facts 23: Summer-Annual Grasses for Supplemental or Emergency Forage [pdf]Get Acrobat Reader
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "Shortages of forage crops in Pennsylvania most often occur during the summer, when dry conditions have reduced the productivity of pastures, hay crops, or silage corn fields. Summer-annual grasses, which maintain relatively high levels of production during hot and dry conditions, can greatly reduce the risk of inadequate forage production during the summer. They also can be used as an emergency forage source when production of corn and hay crops is likely to be less than adequate."

  6. Agronomy Facts 24: Timothy
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "Timothy ( L.) is a perennial, bunch-type, shallow-rooted, cool-season grass that is well adapted to the Northeast and Upper Midwest. Its shallow root system, however, makes it unsuited to droughty soils. Timothy is popular in the northern half of Pennsylvania and most of New York State because of its natural adaptation to moist, cool environments."

  7. Agronomy Facts 25: Orchardgrass
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "Orchardgrass ( L.) is a perennial, cool-season, tall-growing, grass which does not have rhizomes or stolons (bunch-type grass). It starts growth early in spring, develops rapidly, and flowers during May under Pennsylvania conditions. Orchardgrass is more tolerant of shade, drought, and heat than is timothy, perennial ryegrass or Kentucky bluegrass but also grows well in full sunlight."

  8. Agronomy Facts 26: Reed Canarygrass [pdf]Get Acrobat Reader
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "Reed canarygrass ( L.) is a tall, leafy, high-yielding perennial. It is a cool-season grass which is greater in winterhardiness and more resistant to foliar diseases than other cool-season grasses grown in Pennsylvania. The plants spread and thicken from short rhizomes, creating a dense sod. If not grazed or clipped, plants will reach heights exceeding 6 feet under high fertility conditions."

  9. Agronomy Facts 27: Smooth Bromegrass [pdf]Get Acrobat Reader
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "Smooth bromegrass ( L.) is a leafy, sod-forming perennial grass that is best suited for hay or early spring pasture. It is deep-rooted and spreads by underground rhizomes. It matures somewhat later in the spring than orchardgrass and makes less summer growth than orchardgrass. Forage quality of smooth bromegrass compares well with other cool-season grasses, being affected primarily by stage of maturity."

  10. Agronomy Facts 28: Tall Fescue [pdf]Get Acrobat Reader
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "Tall fescue ( Schreb.) is a deep-rooted, long-lived, sod-forming grass that spreads by short underground stems called rhizomes. In Pennsylvania it has been used primarily for conservation purposes but is well suited as hay, silage, or pasture. It is well adapted to the soil and weather conditions of Pennsylvania. It is especially well adapted to acid, wet soils of shale origin and produces more forage than other cool-season grasses on soils with a pH of less than 5.5."

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