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95 matches found for 1 in Extension Publications

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  1. Agronomy Facts 43: Four Steps to Rotational Grazing [pdf]Get Acrobat Reader
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "A well-managed pasture program can be the most economical way to provide forage to ruminant animals. On dairy farms where pasture makes up a significant portion of the forage program, feed costs may be reduced during the grazing season by $.50 to $1.00 a day per cow. However, careful planning and sound management are needed to optimize pasture utilization and animal performance. Knowing your animals, plants, and soils and being able to respond to their needs are skills that must be developed if rotational grazing is to be successful on your farm."

  2. Agronomy Facts 44: Forage Quality Testing: Why, How, and Where [pdf]Get Acrobat Reader
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "For nearly four decades, scientists have been refining the ability to test forages for quality. This research is being done in an effort to improve animal nutrition and, consequently, animal production. In the past, analytical procedures required a week or more to complete. They can now be done in less than 10 minutes, with greater accuracy than before."

  3. Agronomy Facts 52: Potential of Narrow Row Corn Production in Pennsylvania [pdf]Get Acrobat Reader
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "Traditionally, corn produced in Pennsylvania and surrounding states is grown in rows that are 30 inches or wider. Now, producers and researchers are considering the potential of narrower rows such as 15 to 22 inches for corn production in Pennsylvania. The interest in narrow rows is sparked by several possible advantages of this production system: higher yields, better weed control, decreased potential for soil erosion, and increased nutrient uptake."

  4. Agronomy Facts 54: Pennsylvania's Nutrient Management Act: Who Will Be Affected? [pdf]Get Acrobat Reader
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "In the spring of 1993, the Pennsylvania legislature passed and the governor signed the Nutrient Management Act into law. Before this legislation was passed, problems with nutrient pollution were administered under the Clean Streams Law, which dealt only with surface waters. This existing law stated that if a farmer follows practices in the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) publication (Manure Manual), no special permits or approvals are required for manure utilization on farms. The Nutrient Management Act is the first law in Pennsylvania that requires regulatory oversight of nutrient plans on certain farms. This law oversight of nutrient plans on certain farms. This law will take effect on October 1, 1997. An important question is, who will be affected by this legislation?"

  5. Agronomy Facts 63: Diagnosing Soil Compaction using a Penetrometer (soil compaction tester)
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "Soil compaction is a serious concern for farmers in Pennsylvania. Soil compaction can easily reduce crop yields by 10 percent, and can lead to water and soil quality degradation due to increased runoff and soil structure destruction. The continuous consolidation of farms means that herds are growing, more forage is harvested per farm, more manure is being produced, larger equipment is used to spread manure and harvest and transport forages and grain, and the opportunity to tailor field operations to optimum soil conditions for traffic is decreasing. Compaction is therefore an issue that will likely increase in importance in the years to come."

  6. Environmental Soil Issues: Land Application of Sewage Sludge in Pennsylvania - What is sewage sludge and what can be done with it? [pdf]Get Acrobat Reader
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "Before 1950, most communities in the United States discharged their wastewater, or sewage, into streams and rivers with little if any treatment. As urban populations increased, the natural ability of streams and rivers to handle the wasterwater was overwhelmed and caused water quality to deteriorate in many regions. In response to concerns about water quality degradation, thousands of communities throughout the United States constructed wastewater treatment systems during the 1950s and 1960s. This resulted in greatly improved stream and river water quality, but created another material to deal with: ."

  7. Environmental Soil Issues: Land Application of Sewage Sludge in Pennsylvania - Effects of Biosolids on Soil and Crop Quality [pdf]Get Acrobat Reader
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "The use of biosolids on Pennsylvania cropland has been a common practice since the mid-1970s. Biosolids contain essential plant nutrients and organic matter that can benefit crop production. Therefore land application of biosolids represents a beneficial reuse alternative to landfill disposal or incineration. Like any other soil amendment, biosolids application to agricultural land must be properly managed to obtain maximum benefits and minimize potential environmental risks. This fact sheet, which is part of a series on land application of biosolids, presents the results of a three-year research project that investigated how agronomic biosolids utilization has affected soil and crop quality."

  8. Environmental Soil Issues: Lead in Residential Soils: Sources, Testing, and Reducing Exposure [pdf]Get Acrobat Reader
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "Lead occurs naturally in soils, typically at concentrations that range from 10 to 50 mg/kg (milligrams of lead per kilogram of soil, equivalent to parts of lead per million parts of soil, or ppm). Because of the widespread use of leaded paint before the mid-1970s and leaded gasoline before the mid-1980s, as well as contamination from various industrial sources, urban soils often have lead concentrations much greater than normal background levels. These concentrations frequently range from 150 mg/kg to as high as 10,000 mg/kg at the base of a home painted with lead-based paint. Lead does not biodegrade, or disappear over time, but remains in soils for thousands of years."

  9. Conservation Tillage Series: Economics of Conservation Tillage [pdf]Get Acrobat Reader
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "There are many potential economic advantages for reducing the number of tillage operations for crop enterprises. These include: 1) lower fuel costs due to fewer trips over the field, 2) reducing the amount of tillage equipment needed, which results in lower machinery investment, 3) lower labor requirements, which reduce hired labor costs or free up operator time for other farm operations, 4) reducing soil loss from water and wind erosion, and 5) conserving soil moisture."

  10. A Pest Management Program for Alfalfa in Pennsylvania [pdf]Get Acrobat Reader
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "This 12-page booklet that describes a pest-management program designed to meet the needs of alfalfa growers. Topics include alfalfa varieties and management, minimizing disease losses, weed control, loss of feeding value of alfalfa forage due to weeds, and insect control."

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