"Soil fertility management for forage crops is a continuous process that begins well before the forage crop is established. In the pre-establishment phase, the soil conditions are adjusted to provide optimum soil fertility when the crop is established. At establishment phase, the fertility program should deal with any last minute small adjustments in soil fertility and any requirements such as a starter fertilizer for getting the plants established. If the pre-establishment soil fertility goals are met and the stand is successfully established, the goal becomes maintenance of an adequate level of fertility to meet the needs of the crop throughout the life of the stand."
"Horses are used in a wide variety of activities throughout Pennsylvania and adjoining states. Most of these horses are owned and managed for recreation or sport rather than for profit. One of the main expenses in owning a horse is feed. To minimize feed costs, it is important to keep horses healthy and feed them a balanced ration that meets their nutritional needs."
"One of the main expenses in owning a horse is feed. This four-page fact sheet explains how horses naturally use forages as a primary component of their diets and how these requirements can be supplied by pasture and hay. It also covers pasture and hay production and management, as well as forage concerns related to horses."
"Cool-season perennial grass and grass-legume pastures typically become less productive as the grazing season advances from June to November. Forage brassica crops such as turnip, swede, rape, and kale can be spring-seeded to supplement the perennial cool-season pastures in August and September or summer-seeded to extend the grazing season in November and December. Brassicas are annual crops which are highly productive and digestible and can be grazed 80 to 150 days after seeding, depending on the species."
"Selecting the best corn hybrids can be a significant factor in the profitability of a corn production enterprise. The differences in performance among commercially available corn hybrids of the same maturity generally exceed 15 bushels per acre and frequently reach 50 bushels per acre. As a result, improving corn yields by an average of 5 to 10 bushels per acre through careful attention to hybrid selection is not unrealistic."
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