"Ryegrasses are the most widely grown cool-season grasses in the world. They have numerous desirable agronomic qualities. They establish rapidly, have a long growing season, are high yielding under favorable environments when supplied with adequate nutrients, possess high nutrient contents, and can be grazed and used for hay or silage. Ryegrasses grow best on fertile, well-drained soils but can be grown on soils where it is too wet at certain times of the year for satisfactory growth of other grasses."
"Many people believe soybeans are a new crop in Pennsylvania. Soybeans, however, have a long history of production in the state."
"Producing high-quality forage for cattle and sheep has traditionally been difficult on marginal lands in Pennsylvania and New York. Soils with few limitations are generally sown to alfalfa. Soils with a low pH, poor drainage, poor native fertility, or fragipans prone to heaving are not suitable for alfalfa production. Birdsfoot trefoil ( L.) is a forage legume that is more tolerant of these adverse production conditions."
"Red clover ( L.) is grown throughout the northeastern United States for forage and is used in rotations for soil improvement. It is adapted to areas with moderate summer temperatures and adequate moisture throughout the growing season. Unlike alfalfa, red clover will grow moderately well in slightly acid soils. However, maximum yields are obtained when soil pH is 6.0 or higher."
"White clover ( L.) is a short-lived perennial that can reseed itself under favorable conditions. It grows rapidly and spreads via stolons. White clover has a shallow root system, which makes it intolerant of droughty soils. It grows best during cool, moist weather on well-drained, fertile soils with a pH between 6 and 7. Pure stands of white clover are not usually planted because of their low growth habit and associated low yield. However, they make high-quality pastures in mixture with a grass and fix nitrogen for use by the grass."
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