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Penn State Cooperative Extension Publications

379 matches found for All Records in Extension Publications

Results 166 - 170 of 379

  1. Environmental Soil Issues: Garden Use of Treated Lumber [pdf]Get Acrobat Reader
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "Because it has excellent decay resistance, treated lumber is often used in situations when wood needs to be in contact with soil. In the garden, this includes use as bed borders or trim; support for raised garden beds; plant stakes; and compost bins. However, many gardeners are concerned that the chemicals used to preserve the lumber could harm garden plants and the people who eat them. This fact sheet explains the most widely used method for treating wood, examines the possible risks from gardening uses of treated lumber, and makes recommendations for reducing any such risks."

  2. Environmental Soil Issues: Land Application of Sewage Sludge in Pennsylvania - A Plain English Tour of the Regulations [pdf]Get Acrobat Reader
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "At first reading, regulatory language often is difficult to understand because it is written to be technically accurate and legally precise. This fact sheet seeks to provide a "plain English" description of the current regulations for land application of sewage sludge in Pennsylvania. It introduces the approach and concepts used in developing the regulations and explains the regulations' key points."

  3. Environmental Soil Issues: Land Application of Sewage Sludge in Pennsylvania - Biosolids Quality [pdf]Get Acrobat Reader
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "Treatment of municipal wastewater produces sewage sludge, a dilute suspension of solids in water. Sewage sludge contains significant amounts of essential plant nutrients and organic matter that can benefit crop production. Application of sewage sludge to farmland has been a common practice in Pennsylvania for many years and allows this material to be recycled, rather than incinerated or disposed of in landfills. In addition to its beneficial aspects, however, sewage sludge also contains trace elements, organic chemicals, and pathogens that could harm humans or the environment if they are not properly treated and managed."

  4. Environmental Soil Issues: Land Application of Sewage Sludge in Pennsylvania - Effects of Biosolids on Soil and Crop Quality [pdf]Get Acrobat Reader
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "The use of biosolids on Pennsylvania cropland has been a common practice since the mid-1970s. Biosolids contain essential plant nutrients and organic matter that can benefit crop production. Therefore land application of biosolids represents a beneficial reuse alternative to landfill disposal or incineration. Like any other soil amendment, biosolids application to agricultural land must be properly managed to obtain maximum benefits and minimize potential environmental risks. This fact sheet, which is part of a series on land application of biosolids, presents the results of a three-year research project that investigated how agronomic biosolids utilization has affected soil and crop quality."

  5. Environmental Soil Issues: Land Application of Sewage Sludge in Pennsylvania - Use of Biosolids in Crop Production [pdf]Get Acrobat Reader
    Source: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Publications

    "Approximately 300,000 tons (on a dry-weight basis) of municipal sewage sludge are produced each year in Pennsylvania. Three viable options now exist for disposal or use of this sludge: landfill placement; incineration; and recycling through application to farm, forest, or mine land. Although each of these options has its place, recycling efforts have increased in recent years because of growing recognition that our society cannot afford to throw away the valuable resources in sewage sludge. Before sewage sludges can be applied to farmland, however, they must be treated further to stabilize organic material and significantly reduce pathogens. Sewage sludges that have undergone such treatment and that are of sufficiently high quality to be used as an agricultural soil amendment ("land applied") under the current regulations are known as ."

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